Note: Students 13 and older are invited to comment here. Adults should post their comments elsewhere on NYTimes.com.
Homegrown measles, whose symptoms include rash and fever, was declared eliminated from the United States in 2000. However, this year there have already been more than five measles outbreaks — including in New York, Texas and Washington State — for a total of more than 120 cases.
These and other outbreaks have helped to shine a spotlight on the global anti-vaccination movement. And now the World Health Organization lists vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 global threats of 2019.
Watch the above video, “Fool House Rock: Anti-Vaxx Fallacies.”
Why do people distrust vaccines, according to the video? Do you agree that their fears are not based on science? Are fears of vaccines putting the rest of us at risk?
In “Measles Is Making a Comeback. Here’s How to Stop It.,” the editorial board of The New York Times writes:
Measles, a virus that invades the nose and throat, causing fever, cough and phlegm, is one of the most contagious pathogens on the planet. Before 1963, it infected some four million people every year in the United States alone. Nearly 50,000 of them would land in the hospital with complications like severe diarrhea, pneumonia and brain inflammation that sometimes resulted in lifelong disability. Of the 500 or so patients who died from these complications each year, most were children younger than 5.
Until recently, those numbers were a matter of history. The measles vaccine, which was introduced to the United States in 1963, drove the annual case count from four million to zero inside of four decades. Measles was officially eradicated in America in 2000 and was largely wiped from our collective memory soon after.
But in the shadow of that memory lapse, a different virus has spread: anti-vaccine propaganda and vaccine misinformation. Both have persuaded a small but growing number of parents that vaccines designed to inoculate against infectious diseases pose a greater health risk than the diseases themselves. As a result, these parents are skipping crucial shots for their children. And as the number of unvaccinated children grows, some vaccine-preventable diseases are making a comeback.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has logged at least six measles outbreaks so far this year, across five states, involving more than 100 patients. In recent weeks, as those numbers have ticked upward, both houses of Congress have held hearings to discuss the issue, while more states have considered limiting vaccine exemptions for school-age children and several prominent social media platforms have pledged to block anti-vaccine propaganda and vaccine misinformation from their sites.
The editorial makes several recommendations, including increased government spending and leadership. Here it argues for a greater role from social media companies in combating misinformation about vaccines:
Pinterest, YouTube and Facebook have made a good start in acknowledging the problem of vaccine misinformation on their platforms, and they’ve all taken at least some steps to address it. Pinterest has restricted vaccine search results, YouTube has barred anti-vaccine channels from running advertisements and Facebook has said that it will no longer allow anti-vaccine advertisements on its pages. Other sites — like Google, Amazon and Twitter — should follow these examples, and all social media platforms should consider having scientists vet vaccine content for accuracy.
A partnership between federal agencies and private internet behemoths — to better understand and more quickly dismantle the anti-vaccine movement — also would help. As Vox points out, this movement has an outsize media footprint and an impressive lobbying arm; it will take more than a few websites acting independently to defeat it.
And this Times article answers the question: If most people are getting vaccinated, why does it matter if I don’t vaccinate my child?
You are probably thinking of the concept of herd immunity, which means that if a large number of people are protected from a disease by a vaccine, the disease will be less likely to circulate, diminishing the risk for people who are unvaccinated. The threshold for herd immunity varies by disease — for a highly contagious disease, a very high percentage of people need to be vaccinated to meet that threshold.
Because measles is so contagious, between 93 percent and 95 percent of people in a community need to be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity. Remember, some people can’t be vaccinated for medical reasons: infants, pregnant women and people who are immune compromised.
Students, read the entire editorial, then tell us:
— What is your reaction to the editorial? Should all children be vaccinated?
— Do you find the video and the editorial persuasive? Which argument in the video best explains the fears of anti-vaxxers? Have you ever fallen prey to any of the logical fallacies it describes — for example, confirmation bias, the perfectionist fallacy, or confusing correlation with causation?
— Have you ever seen anti-vaccine propaganda and vaccine misinformation online? Do you find any of the arguments of anti-vaxxers persuasive? How can we combat propaganda and misinformation online?
— While most states have laws requiring students to be vaccinated, many grant exemptions for personal, philosophical or religious beliefs. Do you think these exemptions should be eliminated? Why or why not? How do you think schools should handle children who are unvaccinated?
— In “Finding Compassion for ‘Vaccine-Hesitant’ Parents,” Wajahat Ali writes:
Medical professionals refer to these parents as “vaccine-hesitant.” As much satisfaction as it might offer to bring my family-room rants — What is wrong with you? — to my conversations with them, I’m starting to believe I can’t simply write them off as idiots. Even presenting facts might not be enough. Those of us who understand how important and safe vaccines are might need to meet them where they are, trying to express empathy for the misguided fear they’re obviously experiencing, if we’re to break through to them and encourage them to make choices that can save lives.
Do you agree? What do you think about parents who choose not to have their children vaccinated? Do you think you will make the choice to have your children vaccinated? Why or why not?
Measles Outbreak: Your Questions Answered
Facebook Announces Plan to Curb Vaccine Misinformation
Students 13 and older are invited to comment. All comments are moderated by the Learning Network staff, but please keep in mind that once your comment is accepted, it will be made public.B:
六活彩今日开码什么【琳】【琅】【听】【着】【外】【面】【的】【谈】【话】【声】，【只】【觉】【得】【脑】【袋】【有】【些】【疼】，【对】【着】【外】【面】【喊】【了】【一】【声】，“【来】【人】，【进】【来】【伺】【候】【我】【梳】【洗】！” “【贵】【人】，【你】【也】【听】【到】【娘】【娘】【在】【喊】【我】【了】，【要】【不】【您】【先】【移】【步】【到】【客】【厅】【里】，【等】【娘】【娘】【收】【拾】【好】【之】【后】，【再】【过】【去】【见】【你】！” “【那】……【好】【吧】……” 【一】【阵】【响】【动】【过】【后】，【丫】【鬟】【带】【着】【宫】【女】【们】【走】【了】【进】【来】，【一】【部】【分】【的】【人】【伺】【候】【琳】【琅】【梳】【洗】，【另】【外】【一】【部】【分】【人】【给】
【家】【有】【千】【金】，【行】【止】【由】【心】，【这】【样】【是】【不】【错】，【但】【家】【有】【千】【金】，【也】【不】【能】【胡】【吃】【海】【喝】。 【就】【目】【前】【人】【类】【的】【疾】【病】，【百】【分】【之】【八】【十】【不】【是】【和】【吃】【有】【关】【就】【是】【和】【喝】【有】【关】，【剩】【余】【还】【有】【一】【部】【分】【和】……【有】【关】，【至】【于】【其】【他】【的】【就】【是】【什】【么】【意】【外】【了】，【遗】【传】【了】。 【唯】【心】【一】【点】【的】【说】，【人】【的】【一】【生】【总】【的】【饭】【量】【是】【有】【定】【数】【的】，【今】【天】【多】【吃】【一】【口】，【明】【天】【多】【吃】【一】【口】，【或】【许】【原】【本】【能】【活】【八】【十】【岁】，【结】
【可】【下】【一】【瞬】【间】，【当】【她】【见】【到】【被】【秘】【书】【小】【姐】【领】【进】【门】【的】【男】【士】，【她】【就】【再】【也】【笑】【不】【出】【来】【了】。 【叶】【紫】【雪】【这】【才】【终】【于】【明】【白】【陆】【鸣】【此】【次】【约】【她】【前】【来】【的】【真】【正】【目】【的】，【这】【下】【陆】【鸣】【自】【编】【自】【导】【的】【闹】【剧】【可】【谓】【是】【昭】【然】【若】【揭】【了】。 【在】【叶】【紫】【雪】【见】【到】【张】【茂】【学】【的】【那】【一】【瞬】【间】，【她】【的】【神】【情】【是】【呆】【滞】【的】，【但】【是】【很】【快】【又】【恢】【复】【了】【镇】【定】。 【眼】【前】【的】【他】【比】【身】【穿】【高】【跟】【鞋】【的】【自】【己】【更】【要】【高】【出】【粱】【多】，【身】
【整】【个】【办】【公】【室】【的】【气】【氛】【顿】【时】【变】【得】【剑】【拔】【弩】**【来】。 【那】【王】【世】【平】【满】【头】【冷】【汗】，【他】【变】【得】【有】【些】【唯】【唯】【诺】【诺】。【要】【知】【道】，【这】【郑】【云】【波】【是】【他】【的】【顶】【头】【上】【司】，【别】【看】【年】【纪】【大】【了】【但】【是】【却】【属】【于】【肃】【杀】【冷】【漠】【的】【人】，【大】【家】【都】【很】【怕】【他】。 【现】【如】【今】，【他】【竟】【然】【被】【林】【晨】【如】【此】【的】【羞】【辱】，【万】【一】【他】【的】【怒】【气】【殃】【及】【到】【自】【己】，【那】【自】【己】【岂】【不】【是】【十】【分】【的】【倒】【霉】。【可】【是】【这】【件】【事】【情】【毕】【竟】【还】【是】【因】【为】【自】【己】【而】【惹】
【赏】【赐】【张】【昭】【是】【本】【次】【大】【朝】【会】【上】【的】【最】【后】【一】【件】【事】。【陈】【宽】【看】【到】【张】【昭】【退】【入】【武】【臣】【班】【列】【中】，【尖】【着】【嗓】【子】【道】：“【退】【朝】。” 【心】【中】【略】【有】【些】【羡】【慕】。 【他】【这】【个】【年】【纪】，【该】【有】【的】【赏】【赐】【天】【子】【早】【就】【赏】【赐】【给】【他】。【但】【张】【昭】【在】【十】【八】【岁】【的】【年】【纪】，【甚】【至】【在】【功】【劳】【还】【没】【有】【兑】【现】【时】，【天】【子】【就】【迫】【不】【及】【待】【的】【赏】【赐】【飞】【鱼】【服】，【提】【升】【其】【官】【职】。【这】【是】【何】【等】【的】【圣】【恩】？ 【飞】【鱼】【服】，【和】【我】【大】【清】【的】
【费】【喆】【在】【李】【成】【城】【家】【中】【的】【问】【询】【结】【果】，【跟】【他】【自】【己】【预】【料】【的】【一】【样】——【没】【有】【结】【果】！ 【以】【李】【氏】【在】【香】【江】【的】【影】【响】【力】【和】【势】【力】【来】【说】，【用】**【加】【害】【一】【个】【影】【响】【力】【巨】【大】【的】【商】【人】，【根】【本】【就】【不】【可】【能】【留】【下】【蛛】【丝】【马】【迹】【牵】【扯】【到】【自】【己】【身】【上】。 【而】【且】【就】【算】【大】【家】【都】【心】【知】【肚】【明】，【陈】【晋】【死】【亡】【后】【的】【直】【接】【受】【益】【人】【就】【是】【四】【大】【家】【族】，【但】【其】【中】【的】【利】【益】【纠】【葛】【并】【不】【是】【流】【于】【表】【面】【的】，【所】【以】【硬】【要】
【回】【家】【路】【上】，【梦】【晚】【拖】【着】【步】【子】，【从】【小】【区】【到】【楼】【门】【口】【的】【那】【段】【距】【离】，【平】【时】【只】【有】【两】【三】【分】【钟】【就】【到】【了】，【今】【天】【却】【走】【了】【很】【久】。 【走】【到】【门】【口】【的】【草】【坪】【边】，【下】【意】【识】【的】【停】【下】，【扭】【头】【看】【过】【去】。 【草】【坪】【里】【没】【有】【正】【在】【摆】【着】【扭】【曲】【姿】【势】【奔】【奔】【跳】【跳】【的】“【小】【叶】”，【没】【有】【叶】【之】【章】【站】【在】【一】【旁】【笑】【着】【叫】【住】【梦】【晚】。 【那】【声】“【梦】【晚】”【突】【然】【让】【她】【好】【想】【念】。 【走】【到】【房】【间】【门】【口】，【梦】【晚】
【随】【着】【里】【克】【宣】【布】【对】【布】【诺】【尼】【亚】【进】【行】【了】【全】【面】【制】【裁】【以】【后】，【作】【为】【目】【前】【十】【大】【自】【由】【城】【邦】【最】【顶】【尖】【之】【一】【的】【国】【家】，【瓦】【兰】【提】【斯】【直】【接】【做】【出】【了】【强】【国】【应】【有】【的】【态】【度】。 【宣】【战】！ 【但】【同】【样】【作】【为】【十】【大】【自】【由】【城】【邦】【中】【最】【其】【他】【城】【邦】【厌】【恶】【的】【国】【家】，【瓦】【兰】【提】【斯】【根】【本】【没】【有】【机】【会】【踏】【足】【瓦】【雷】【斯】【自】【由】【城】【邦】【的】【土】【地】，【更】【别】【说】【长】【途】【行】【军】【本】【就】【是】【大】【忌】。 【而】【面】【对】【这】【种】【情】【况】，【里】【克】【考】【虑】